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Saints Cosmas and Damian

Saints Cosmas and Damian
Cosmas and Damian.jpg

Icon of Saints Cosmas (left) and Damian (right)
holding medicine boxes and spoons for dispensing cures
Martyrs
Born 3rd century AD
Arabia
Died c. 287 AD
Aegea, Roman province of Syria
Honored in Roman Catholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Churches
Oriental Orthodox Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
Major shrine Convent of the Poor Clares in Madrid, Basilica of Saints Cosmas and Damian in Bitonto, Bari, Italy
Feast
Attributes depicted as twins, beheaded, or with medical emblems
Patronage surgeons, physicians, dentists, protectors of children, barbers, pharmacists, veterinarians, orphanages, day-care centers, confectioners, children in house, against hernia, against the plague.

According to Christian traditions, Saints Cosmas and Damian (Greek: Κοσμάς και Δαμιανός) (also written Kosmas and Damianos) (died ca. 287) were twin brothers, physicians, and early Christian martyrs born in Cilicia, part of today’s Turkey. They practiced their profession in the seaport of Ayas, Adana, then in the Roman province of Syria. Accepting no payment for their services led to them being named “Ανάργυροι” (Unmercenary); it has been said that, by this, they attracted many to the Christian faith.[3]

Lives

Saint Cosmas and Saint Damian, by Gerard Seghers (Antwerp, 1591-1651). Oil on canvas. (Private collection, United States).

According to Christian traditions, during the persecution under Diocletian, Cosmas and Damian were arrested by order of the Prefect of Cilicia, one Lysias who is otherwise unknown, who ordered them under torture to recant. However, according to legend they stayed true to their faith, enduring being hung on a cross, stoned and shot by arrows and finally suffered execution by beheading. Anthimus, Leontius and Euprepius, their younger brothers, who were inseparable from them throughout life, shared in their martyrdom.

Their most famous miraculous exploit was the grafting of a leg from a recently deceased Ethiopian to replace a patient’s ulcered leg, and was the subject of many paintings and illuminations.

Veneration

Cosmas and Damian miraculously transplant the black leg of the Ethiopian onto the white body of the patient.

Reliquary (1400/1420) in St. Michael’s Church, Munich containing the alleged skulls of Cosmas and Damian. The convent of the Poor Clares in Madrid also has two skulls of Saints Cosmas and Damian.

Pope Felix IV presents Sts Cosmas and Damian with the basilica he rededicated to them.

As early as the 4th century, churches dedicated to the twin saints were established at Jerusalem, in Egypt and in Mesopotamia. Theodoret records the division of their reputed relics. Their relics, deemed miraculous, were buried in the city of Cyrrus in Syria. Churches were built in their honor by Archbishop Proclus and by Emperor Justinian I (527–565), who sumptuously restored the city of Cyrus and dedicated it to the twins, but brought their purported relics to Constantinople; there, following his cure, ascribed to the intercession of Cosmas and Damian, Justinian, in gratitude also built and adorned their church at Constantinople, and it became a celebrated place of pilgrimage. At Rome Pope Felix IV (526–530) rededicated the Library of Peace (Bibliotheca Pacis) as a basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano in the Forum of Vespasian in their honour. The church is much rebuilt but still famed for its sixth-century mosaics illustrating the saints.

What are said to be their skulls are venerated in the convent of the Clares in Madrid, where they have been since 1581, the gift of Maria, daughter of Emperor Charles V. They had previously been removed from Rome to Bremen in the tenth century, and thence to Bamberg. Other skulls said to be theirs were discovered in 1334 by Burchard Grelle, Archbishop of Bremen. He “personally ‘miraculously’ retrieved the relics of the holy physicians Cosmas and Damian, which were allegedly immured and forgotten in the choir of the Bremen Cathedral.[4] In celebration of the retrieval Archbishop and Chapter arranged a feast at Pentecost 1335, when the relics were translated from the wall to a more dignified place.[5] Grelle claimed the relics were those Archbishop Adaldag brought from Rome in 965. The cathedral master-builder Johann Hemeling made a shrine for the relics, which was finished around 1420. The shrine,made from carved oak wood covered with gilt and rolled silver is considered an important mediaeval gold work.[6] In 1649 Bremen’s Chapter, Lutheran by this time, sold the shrine without the heads to Maximilian I of Bavaria. The two heads remained in Bremen and came into the possession of the small Roman Catholic community. They were shown from 1934 to 1968 in the Church of St. Johann and in 1994 they were buried in the crypt.[7] The shrine is now shown in the Jesuit church of St Michael in Munich. At least since 1413 another supposed pair of skulls of the saints has been stored in St Stephens’s Cathedral in Vienna. Other relics are claimed by the Church of San Giorgio Maggiore in Venice.

The martyrdom of Saints Cosmas and Damian by Fra Angelico (Musée du Louvre, Paris).

The martyr twins are invoked in the Canon of the Mass in the prayer known as the Communicantes (from the first Latin word of the prayer): “In communion with the whole Church, they venerate above all others the memory of the glorious ever-virgin Mary, Mother of our God and Lord, Jesus Christ, then of blessed Joseph, husband of the Virgin, your blessed Apostles and Martyrs, Peter and Paul, Andrew, James, John, Thomas, James, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Simon and Jude: Linus, Cletus, Clement, Sixtus, Cornelius, Cyprian, Laurence, Chrysogonus, John and Paul, Cosmas and Damian and all your Saints: grant through their merits and prayers that in all things we may be defended by the help of your protection.” They are also invoked in the Litany of the Saints, and in the older form of the Roman rite, in the Collect for Thursday in the Third Week of Lent, as the station church for this day is Santi Cosma e Damiano.

Their feast day in the Roman Catholic calendar of saints, which had been on September 27, was moved in 1969 to September 26, because September 27 is the dies natalis (“day of birth” into Heaven) of Saint Vincent de Paul, now more widely venerated in the Latin Church,[8] but some traditionalist Catholics continue to observe the pre-1970 calendar.

Sts Cosmas and Damian are regarded as the patrons of physicians and surgeons and are sometimes represented with medical emblems.

Cosmas and Damian are depicted as supporters of the arms of the guild of barber-surgeons carved into a capital, 15th century, from the Carmes monastery in Trie-sur-Baïse in southwestern France. The inscription reads, “Saints Cosmas and Damian pray for us”.

In Brazil, the twin saints are regarded as protectors of children, and September 27 is commemorated, especially in Rio de Janeiro, by giving children bags of candy with the saints’ effigy printed on them and throughout the entire state of Bahia where Catholics and adepts of Candomblé religion offer typical food such as carurú. The ritual consists of first offering the food to seven children that are no older than seven years old and then having them feast while sitting on the floor and eating with their hands. Only after all children have finished can the guests enjoy the food that is being offered. The Church of Saints Cosmas and Damian, in Igarassu, Pernambuco is Brazil’s oldest church, built in 1535.

In the UK St Damian is the dexter side supporter in the coat of arms of the British Dental Association.

Sts. Cosmas & Damian are venerated every year in Utica, New York at St. Anthony’s Parish during the annual pilgrimage which takes place on the last weekend of September (close to the Sept. 27 feast day). There are thousands of pilgrims who come to honor the saints. Over 80 busloads come from Canada and other destinations. The 2-day festival includes music (La Banda Rosa), much Italian food, masses and processions through the streets of East Utica. It is one of the largest festivals honoring saints in the northeast USA.

Eastern Christianity

Icon of Saints Cosmas and Damian (17th century, Historic Museum in Sanok, Poland).

In the Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Catholic Churches, and the Oriental Orthodox Churches, Saints Cosmas and Damian are venerated as a type of saint known as Unmercenary Physicians (Greek: ἀνάργυροι, anargyroi, “without money”). This classification of saints is unique to the Eastern Church and refers to those who heal purely out of love for God and man, strictly observing the command of Jesus: “Freely have you received, freely give.” («Δωρεὰν ἐλάβετε, δωρεὰν δότε…» Matthew 10:8) While each of the Unmercenaries have their own feast days, all are commemorated together on the first Sunday in November, in a feast known as the Synaxis of the Unmercenary Physicians.

The Orthodox celebrate no less than three different sets of saints by the name of Cosmas and Damian, each with their own distinct feast day:

  • Saints Cosmas and Damian of Cilicia (Arabia) (October 17) Brothers, according to Christian legend they were beaten and beheaded together with three other Christians: Leontius, Anthimus, and Eutropius.
  • Saints Cosmas and Damian of Asia Minor — alternately, of Mesopotamia (November 1) Twin sons of Saint Theodota. Died peacefully and were buried together at Thereman in Mesopotamia.
  • Saints Cosmas and Damian of Rome (July 1) Brothers, according to Christian tradition they were martyred outside Rome by a jealous pagan physician during the reign of the Roman Emperor Carinus (283–284).

Orthodox icons of the saints depict them vested as laymen holding medicine boxes. Often each will also hold a spoon with which to dispense medicine. The handle of the spoon is normally shaped like a cross to indicate the importance of spiritual as well as physical healing, and that all cures come from God.

In Rochester, Minnesota, home of the Mayo Clinic, the Greek Orthodox Church is the Holy Anargyroi/Sts. Kosmas & Damianos Greek Orthodox Church.

Apse mosaic of Cosmas and Damian

The Apse of the Church of SS. Cosmas and Damian, Rome, 7th century: Paul and Peter present the martyrs to Christ.

Church of England

In the Church of England, dedications of churches to SS Cosmas and Damian are very rare:

References

  1. Jump up ^ Great Synaxaristes: (Greek) Οἱ Ἅγιοι Κοσμᾶς καὶ Δαμιανός οἱ Ἀνάργυροι καὶ Θαυματουργοί. 1 Νοεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
  2. Jump up ^ Wonderworker and Unmercenary Cosmas of Asia Minor. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
  3. Jump up ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: “Sts. Cosmas and Damian”
  4. Jump up ^ Cf. “Bremer Chronik von Gerhard Rinesberch und Herbord Schene”, In: Bremen, Hermann Meinert (ed.) on behalf of the Historische Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Bremen: Schünemann, 1968, (Chroniken der deutschen Städte vom 14. bis ins 16. Jahrhundert; vol. 37: Die Chroniken der niedersächsischen Städte), p. 112,; Regesten der Erzbischöfe von Bremen, Joseph König and Otto Heinrich May (compilators), Hanover: Selbstverlag der Historischen Kommission, 1971, (Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Hannover, Oldenburg, Braunschweig, Schaumburg-Lippe und Bremen; vol. 11,2,2), vol. 2, Lfg. 2: 1327–1344, No. 508; Joseph König, “Zur Biographie des Burchard Grelle, Erzbischof von Bremen und der Geschichte seines Pontifikats (1327–1344)”, In: Stader Jahrbuch; vol. 76 (1986), p. 42; Herbert Schwarzwälder, Geschichte der Freien Hansestadt Bremen:5 vols., ext. and impr. ed., Bremen: Ed. Temmen, 1995, vol. 1: Von den Anfängen bis zur Franzosenzeit: (1810), p. 70; Alfred Löhr, “Kult und Herrschaft, Erzstift und Domkapitel”, In: Der Bremer Dom. Baugeschichte, Ausgrabungen, Kunstschätze. Handbuch u. Katalog zur Sonderausstellung vom 17.6. bis 30.9.1979 im Bremer Landesmuseum – Focke-Museum –, Karl Heinz Brandt (ed.), Bremen: Bremer Landesmuseum, 1979, (Focke-Museum, Bremen. Hefte; No. 49, vielm.: 52), pp. 102seq. and 128 as well as Catalogue No. 31, Urkunden und Siegel des Erzbischofs Burchard Grelle; Bodo Heyne, “Die Arztheiligen Kosmas und Damian und der Bremer Dom”, In: Hospitium Ecclesiae: Forschungen zur Bremischen Kirchengeschichte; vol. 9 (1975), pp. 7–21; Johannes Focke, “Die Heiligen Cosmas und Damian und ihr Reliquienschrein im Dom zu Bremen”, In: Bremisches Jahrbuch, Bd. 17 (1895), pp. 128–161.
  5. Jump up ^ “Ostern 1334 hatte Burchard persönlich im Chor des Bremer Doms die … dort angeblich eingemauerten und vergessenen Reliquien der heiligen Ärzte Cosmas und Damian auf ‘wunderbare Weise’ wiederaufgefunden. Erzbischof und Kapitel veranstalteten aus diesem Anlaß zu Pfingsten 1335 ein Fest, bei dem die Reliquien aus der Mauer an einen würdigeren Platz überführt wurden.” Konrad Elmshäuser, “Der werdende Territorialstaat der Erzbischöfe von Bremen (1236–1511): I. Die Erzbischöfe als Landesherren”, In: Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser: 3 parts, Hans-Eckhard Dannenberg and Heinz-Joachim Schulze (eds.) on behalf of the Landschaftsverband der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, 1995 and 2008, (Schriftenreihe des Landschaftsverbandes der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden; No. 7), part II: Mittelalter (1995), pp. 159–189, here p. 177. Original emphasis. Omission not in the original. ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2
  6. Jump up ^ Konrad Elmshäuser, “Der werdende Territorialstaat der Erzbischöfe von Bremen (1236–1511): I. Die Erzbischöfe als Landesherren”, In: Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser: 3 parts, Hans-Eckhard Dannenberg and Heinz-Joachim Schulze (eds.) on behalf of the Landschaftsverband der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, 1995 and 2008, (Schriftenreihe des Landschaftsverbandes der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden; No. 7), Part II: Mittelalter (1995), pp. 159–189, here p. 178. ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2
  7. Jump up ^ (Wilhelm Tacke: St. Johann in Bremen – erine 600jährige Geschichte – von den Bettelbrüdern bis zu den Pröpsten, Bremen 2006, S. 172ff.)
  8. Jump up ^ “Calendarium Romanum” (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 140

Further reading

FreeHostia Beginner’s Giude

This is an incomplete version of our beginner’s guide. We will be editing this tutorial to make it as easy and understandable for everyone who uses our web hosting control panel for the first time. We will also add some screenshots later.

Getting started

Once you have signed up for a web hosting account and you have received the welcome email with the login details, you most likely want to get started and get your site online as soon as possible. This guide will guide you through the steps of setting up your account and getting your website online. You will also learn how to setup email accounts, MySQL databases etc. But first things first, let’s start with setting up your domain name and uploading the files.

* Domain name setup *
– If you have registered our domain with us when you signed up for the account, all the work is done by us, so you just need to wait for your domain to become fully operational (usually 12-24 hours).
– If you have registered the domain from the Domain Registration section of your web hosting control panel you also need to add it to the Hosted Domains section before it becomes fully operational.
– In the case when you have registered the domain elsewhere, you need to add it to the Hosted Domains and set our name servers to it. The name servers are listed in the Hosted Domains section. The company which you have registered the domain with should have provided you with a control panel where you can edit the name servers (DNS) of your domain. Set our name servers to the domain and allow 12-24 hours for the change to take effect.
– If you have requested a domain transfer, make sure that the domain has been added to the Hosted Domains and set our name servers to it. Setting our name servers to your domain will make the domain point to your account (within 12-24 hours). The transfer procedure however takes more time – usually 5-7 business days. Transferring a domain means that you are changing the registrar company – the one which manages your domain. While the domain is transferring you can still use it as long as you have set our name servers (DNS) to it.

Now that you have the domain setup, you can start with uploading your files (publishing your website).

* Uploading your files / publishing your site *
We have an online File Manager integrated in the web hosting control panel which can be used for file manipulation and upload. Open the File Manager – you will see 5 folders:
logs
mail
sys
tmp
www
These are the system folders of your account. The one that you will be accessing is the www folder. In the www folder are located the main folders of each of your subdomains/domains. When you add a domain to your Hosted Domains or you add a subdomain from the Subdomain Manager, a folder is created in the www/ directory. The folder has the same name as your domain/subdomain. So if you have added the domain your-domain.com to your Hosted Domains, then you should see a folder named your-domain.com in the www/ directory. Of course you can edit the folder where a subdomain/domain points to, but by default it points to the folder which has the same name and is located in the www/ directory. We will explain later how you can edit the default path of a subdomain/domain.

Now that you know where your subdomain/domain points to you should have some idea where you should upload your files. In the example with your-domain.com, you should upload your files to the folder named your-domain.com. But how do you do this? There are several ways to upload/publish your website:

– FrontPage – if you have created your website with FrontPage, this is how you publish your website:
* From your web hosting control panel you should first activate the FrontPage Extensions (FPEs) for the domain/subdomain which you will be publishing your website to. Go to the FrontPage Extensions section of your web hosting control panel and activate the extensions by selecting the domain/subdomain that you want to activate them for.
* Now that you have the FPEs activated, you can publish your website:
1. Launch FrontPage Explorer and open the web site you have created on your computer.
2. From the menu at the top select “File” > “Publish”
3. Enter the location, where you want to publish your FrontPage web site. (http://www.your-domain.com – if you are using a free subdomain type it without www in front). Then hit the Enter key on your keyboard.
IMPORTANT: Use “http://www.your-domain.com” (if you are using a free subdomain type it without www in-front) as the Destination Web Server to publish to our server. Leave the ‘Destination Web Name’ blank.
4. Use the following username and password:
Username: your account username
Password: your FTP password
You should use the username/password of your default FTP account. You can see the username in the FTP Manager section of your web hosting control panel – there you can also set the FTP password.

– File Manager – the File Manager integrated in your web hosting control panel can also be used for uploading files. Browse the directory where you want to upload the files to – in our example, go to www/your-domain.com. Then at the bottom you see 5 fields with the button “Choose” next to them. You can upload even more than 5 files at a time by clicking on the “More Files” button – it will add a new field every time you click it. Choose the files that you want to upload by clicking on the “Choose” button and selecting the files from your computer and then click “Upload File(s)” to initiate the upload (leave the “Upload permissions” set to 755). Once the files have been uploaded you will see them in the folder of your domain/subdomain.
Now when you open your website from the web (http://www.your-domain.com) your website will open. Please keep in mind that the file that loads by default is the one named index.html (or index.htm or index.php). If you don’t have an index file, a directory index page (Index of/) will open when you go to the address of your website (http://www.your-domain.com).

– FTP – you can use FTP client software like FileZilla, CuteFTP, SmartFTP, WS_FTP etc. to upload your files. Such FTP clients are actually something like remote file managers. In order to connect to the server, they need the FTP connection settings. These are the same settings that you can see/edit in the FTP Manager. For FTP host use your-domain.com (or any of your working subdomains/domains) and for the username and the password use the ones in from the FTP Manager section of your web hosting control panel. For concrete instructions about using the FTP client that you have downloaded, please refer to the Help of the respective software.

Using one of the methods described above, you should have been able to publish your website. Now at http://www.your-domain.com you should see your home page.

If you are using a PHP/Perl system that requires MySQL database, then you have some additional work to do. First you need to create a database, then you need to connect your PHP/Perl driven website to the database.

* Creating a MySQL Database *
You can add a database to your account from the Manage SQL Databases section of the web hosting control panel. This is also where you can see the existing databases and edit the password of a database. The database names look something like:
username_db1
username_db2
username_joomla
username_mambo
Where username is the username of your web hosting account. When you create a database you can only choose the second part of the name (db1, db2, joomla, mambo). Keep in mind that the whole name (including username_) must not be longer than 16 characters.

Once you have created a database you can setup your scripts to connect to it using the following settings:
database name: username_db1 (the whole name of the database – the one that you see in the Manage SQL Databases section of your web hosting control panel)
database username: username_db1 (the same as above)
database password: password (the password that you have set to your database – you can edit it from the Manage SQL Databases section)
database host: server.com (server.com is an example, you can see the correct server name / database hostname in the Manage SQL Databases section, just under the table with the list of your database(s))
database port: 3306
Usually the script that you are installing requires all of the above settings, in some cases, the MySQL port is not required though.
Using the correct MySQL settings, your script should be able to connect to the database. You may however need to do some manual changes to the tables of a database and the tool, which you can use for, that purpose is the phpMyAdmin – it is integrated in your web hosting control panel. You should login using the database name (the whole name) as username and the database password as password.

The phpMyAdmin can be used for importing and exporting a database (i.e. for loading a backup or creating a backup of your database).

* Importing a database (loading a backup from a database dump file) *
In the phpMyAdmin there are 5 icons on the left navigation menu, the middle one says SQL, click on it and a new window opens where you see “Import file” in the top navigation links. There you can import the file that you have exported.

[/b]* Exporting a database (creating a backup) *[/b]
You can backup your database from the phpMyAdmin section of your web hosting control panel. Login to phpMyAdmin. Click on your database (on the left you see the name of the database and all tables under the database, click on the name of your database), then click on “Export” from the top navigation menu. Check the “Save as file” check-box and click on the “Go” button in the bottom right corner.

Now that you have your domain working, your files have been uploaded and you have setup a database and your scripts are able to connect to it, we can say that your site has been setup. This is however only part of what you have to do. In the following sections of this tutorial you will learn how to add/edit subdomains; create email accounts; check the statistics of your web hosting account and websites; use the Password Protected Areas tools and more…

Subdomains

You can add, delete and edit the settings of a subdomain from the Subdomain Manager. You will note that in the Subdomain Manager there is a www subdomain for each of your domain (www.your-domain.com for example). The www subdomain is the default subdomain of a top level domain – it cannot be deleted unless you delete the domain from the Hosted Domains. Using the form in the subdomain manager you can add new subdomains. This is what each of the subdomain fields mean:

– IP: the IP of the subdomain – by default this is the shared IP of the server – it is shared for all web hosting accounts on the server. You can also have a dedicated IP (we will explain how you can acquire one later) – if you have a dedicated IP you can select it from the drop-down menu and make your subdomain resolve at this dedicated IP. This way the site hosted in the folder of your subdomain will not only be accessible at http://subdomain.your-domain.com but also at http://123.45.678.9 (where 123.45.678.9 is your dedicated IP).

– Path: the path of the subdomain defines to which folder the subdomain points to. As we explained earlier, by default the subdomain subdomain.your-domain.com points to the folder subdomain.your-domain.com, so the default path is /www/subdomain.your-domain.com/
You can however edit the path and make the subdomain point to /www/subdomain2.your-domain.com/ – this way http://subdomain.your-domain.com will open the content of the folder subdomain2.your-domain.com. This way you can have the same content at more than one addresses (subdomains/domains) – this could be useful if you have the domains your-domain.com and your-domain.net and want them to open the same content.

– Error 404 page: you can set your won custom 404 error page, so when someone follows a wrong link on your site, he will be brought to your custom error page instead of the default error page of the server.

– Activate FPE: FrontPage extensions could be activated when creating/editing a subdomain, this is what this option does.

– Activate access & error logs: selecting this option would activate the access & error logs for the subdomain. The access logs and the error logs are text files with logs, which you can download from the Access & Error Logs section of your web hosting control panel. We will explain the use of the Access & Error Logs later in this tutorial.

– Secure Socket Layer (SSL): you can also activate SSL when adding/deleting a subdomain. SSL is used for securing a site where the visitor is asked for personal details or billing information for example. We will explain the use of SSL in details later.

When creating a subdomain you can choose the domain at which the subdomain will be created from a drop-down menu. If you choose your-domain.com for example and type “forum” in the subdomain field, a subdomain forum.your.domain.com will be created. In the domain drop-down menu are listed all domains that you have added to your Hosted Domains plus the server domains – these are domains added to the server for public use. Usually people use them for testing, but you can also host a working website on such subdomain.

In the table where all subdomains are listed there are several columns:
# Subdomain IP FileManager FPE SSL Traffic Edit Delete
here is what each of them represents:
– # – the number of the subdomain in the list
– Subdomain – the name of the subdomain, clicking on it will open the website hosted on this subdomain
– IP – the IP of the subdomain
– FileManager – clicking on the folder icon opens the folder where the subdomain points via the File Manager
– FPE – shows whether FrontPage Extensions have been enabled for this subdomain or not
– SSL – shows whether SSL has been activated for this subdomain or not
– Traffic – opens the traffic statistics for this subdomain
– Edit – opens the page where you can edit the settings of the subdomain
– Delete – deletes the subdomain

Above the table where the subdomains are listed, there is a search form where you can search a subdomain by IP or the name of the subdomain. You can use this form if you have many subdomains and have problems finding any of them in the list.

*** Important: The way our system works, does not allow accessing a subdomain from the web with a www in front of the name of the subdomain – this means that www.subdomain.your-domain.com would not work. You can only access a top level domain with a www in front (www.your-domain.com).

Email

* Creating and using an email account *
To create a working e-mail account you need to have a domain. Having a working domain in your hosting account, you will be able to create e-mail accounts by submitting the form in the E-Mail Manager menu of your Control Panel. Here is what each of the fields means/does:
– Catchall email: selecting this option will create a catchall account. A catchall accounts is an account which receives all emails sent to non-existing email address at a concrete domain. For example the catchall account catchall@your-domain.com will receive all emails sent to email addresses like adfasdfasdf@your-domain.com if there is no actual adfasdfasdf@your-domain.com created in your account. This could mean that the catchall account will receive a lot of spam, but also you won’t miss a message because a client spelled wrong your sales email and sent the message to the non-existing salles@your-domain.com instead to sales@your-domain.com which is the correct address. IMPORTANT: catchall accounts cannot send emails, the are strictly for incoming mail. Also, catchall accounts cannot have an auto-responder and cannot be forwarded.
– Password: sets the password for the email account
– Retype Password: sets the password for the email account
– Use Autoresponder: sets an autoresponder, so that someone sends an email to this email address, he will receive an automated reply
How do you use the email account that you have just created?
– You can use the email account with the Webmail – this is an online email client – similar to yahoo’s and hotmail’s webmails but more simple. You can login to the webmail using the name of your mailbox as username and the corresponding password as password. So if you have created an email account admin@your-domain.com, the username which you should use in the webmail would be admin@your-domain.com
– You can also use your email account with any standalone email client – like Outlook or Mozilla Thunderbird. In this case there are several settings that you need to know:
mailbox:
IMAP/POP3, SMTP username: admin@your-domain.com
IMAP/POP3, SMTP password: corresponding password for the above account
IMAP/POP3, SMTP server: mail.server.com (mail.server.com is just an example – you can see the mail server in the Email Manager, just under the table where your email accounts are listed)
Secure Authentication: ON – you should set your email client to use secure authentication. Here is how you can do this in some of the most popular mail clients:
* Outlook Express: enable the check-box “My server requires authentication”
* Eudora: enable the check-box “Authentication allowed”
* Mozilla Thunderbird: enable the option “Use name and password”
* Mail for Mac OS X: enable the check-box “Use authentication when sending mail”, also set Authentication to “MD5 Challenge-Response”

* Forwarding email accounts *
You can forward an email account to any valid email address. So if you only use the email account john@your-domain.com and want the emails sent to sales@your-domain.com to be forwarded to john@your-domain.com you can do this from the Email Manager. In the email accounts table there is an icon in the Forward column, when you click on it, you can add a forward for the email account.

* Email aliases – what they are and how we use them *
An email alias is actually an alternative name for a mailbox. For example if we have the mailbox john@your-domain.com, it has the default alias john@your-domain.com and we can add more aliases. If we add the alias john-smith@your-domain.com all emails sent to john-smith@your-domain.com will be received by the email account john@your-domain.com. How is this different from email forwarding? For instance, aliases cannot be used for sending emails. So you cannot send emails from john-smith@your-domain.com which is an alias of john@your-domain.com. Also you cannot login to the webmail or setup your outlook using john-smith@your-domain.com, because it is not really a mailbox, the mailbox is john@your-domain.com. So why using aliases instead of forwarding? Well, actually in most cases forwarding is better, there are some rare cases when you would like to use an alias, for example if you have an email account johnny@your-domain.com and people often get it wrong and send emails to johny@your-domain.com – you can create an alias johny@your-domain.com so that you don’t lose emails from people who can’t spell :)

* The email accounts table *
Let’s see what each of the columns means/represents:
# Mail Forward Delete Alias Mailbox Aliases Outlook Options Delete Mailbox
– # – the number of the email account in the table
– Mail – a list of the email Aliases for this email account
– Forward – indicates whether the alias has a forwarding set to it; you can click on the icon to add forwarding
– Delete – deletes the alias
– Aliases – clicking on the icon allows you to add an alias to this mailbox
– Outlook – clicking on the icon downloads a file which automatically configures Outlook for this mailbox
– Options – clicking on the left icon allows you to change the password, clicking on the right icon allows you to set an autoresponder
– Delete Mailbox – deletes the mailbox (incl. all aliases!)

* Sending mails using a script *
There is one very important requirement on our servers – when sending emails using a script, either the TO: or FROM: header must be set to an email account hosted in your web hosting account. This restriction is necessary to prevent spam. So if you have a contact form, the FROM: address will be most likely the email address of the person who is contacting you – this means that the TO: address must be set to your email, hosted in your web hosting account. IN the case when it is a “Tell a friend” form for example, the TO: address would be the email of the “friend”, so you must set the FROM: address to your email address.

As we mentioned before, there are several ways to send emails using a script:

– SMTP – some PHP/Perl systems allow you to use the SMTP for sending emails – the script connects to the SMTP server the same way a mail client does and sends the emails. In this case you need to use a concrete email account for sending emails. Let’s say you want to use the email account admin@your-domain.com
The settings that you need to set in your scripts are actually the same that you use in your mail client (Outlook for example):
SMTP server: the mail server listed in the Email Manager (for example mail.server.com)
username: admin@your-domain.com
password: the corresponding password for admin@your-domain.com
Use secure authentication: YES
Keep in mind that is you use the email account admin@your-domain.com the script must be hosted in the same web hosting account – you want be able to send emails using this email account with a script hosted elsewhere.

– phpmail() – the phpmail() or mail() function is a PHP function used for sending emails. In this case you don’t need to provide the password or the mail server, but only the email account, which you want to send the email FROM or TO. Again, the script must be hosted in the same web hosting account as the email account.

– sendmail – sendmail is a Perl module, in order to use it, you need to set the path to sendmail in your script and the email that you want the emails to be send FROM or TO. The sendmail path is: /usr/sbin/sendmail

Statistics

We offer several kinds of statistics with every web hosting plan. There is an Account Usage table on the left of your web hosting control panel where you see the global stats for your account, like disk space, traffic, etc. The In Use column shows the number/amount used and the Available shows the available/not used number/amount. There are also detailed statistics about the traffic used by each subdomain in the Bandwidth Stats section. We also have even more detailed statistic – the Traffic Stats – there you can see the amount of visitors, hits, etc. for each of your websites.

Password Protected Areas (PPA)

If you want to protect a concrete folder with a password, so that when someone opens the folder it asks for username and password, you can do this using the Password Protected Areas tool.

You can add a password-protected area by using the form in the PPA section. You can select the folder, which you want to protect by clicking on the “…” button – a File Manager window will open and you will be able to browse to the folder and select it.

Remember that the password protection will not work if there is an .htaccess file in the folder, which you are trying to protect.

Use Disqus instead of Akismet ?

Moderating Comments on a Freehostia Chocolate Account (Free)

The problem: Freehostia Free Accounts block outside connections.  This means that Akismet can’t access it’s servers and you can’t have spam checking.  So, all of your comments are spam spam spam!

I tried to add a captcha, but they got around that.  I tried to add Disqus using the plugin, but that failed to install because of the account’s limitations.

But, I was able to add moderated comments to my freehostia site by manually installing Disqus.  This is very necessary because otherwise you get hit with a bunch of spammers.

Here is how you manually install Disqus on WordPress.

  1. Create New Disqus Account 
  2. Go to your dashboard
  3. Click on your site
  4. Go to Settings
  5. And then click Install
  6. Select Universal Code
  7. Copy that code
  8. In /wp-content/themes/THEMENAME/single.php Replace:
    <?php comments_template( '', true ); ?>
  9. Save, Upload, then go to one of your posts. You should see Disqus loading at the bottom.
  10. Remember to setup your Disqus the way you want it. It’s a little restrictive out of the box. You can even add Akismet to Disqus in their admin interface.

http://dan.folkes.me/2013/02/13/moderating-comments-on-a-freehostia-chocolate-account-free/