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|Saints Cosmas and Damian|
Icon of Saints Cosmas (left) and Damian (right)
holding medicine boxes and spoons for dispensing cures
|Born||3rd century AD
|Died||c. 287 AD
Aegea, Roman province of Syria
|Honored in||Roman Catholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Churches
Oriental Orthodox Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
|Major shrine||Convent of the Poor Clares in Madrid, Basilica of Saints Cosmas and Damian in Bitonto, Bari, Italy|
|Attributes||depicted as twins, beheaded, or with medical emblems|
|Patronage||surgeons, physicians, dentists, protectors of children, barbers, pharmacists, veterinarians, orphanages, day-care centers, confectioners, children in house, against hernia, against the plague.|
According to Christian traditions, Saints Cosmas and Damian (Greek: Κοσμάς και Δαμιανός) (also written Kosmas and Damianos) (died ca. 287) were twin brothers, physicians, and early Christian martyrs born in Cilicia, part of today’s Turkey. They practiced their profession in the seaport of Ayas, Adana, then in the Roman province of Syria. Accepting no payment for their services led to them being named “Ανάργυροι” (Unmercenary); it has been said that, by this, they attracted many to the Christian faith.
According to Christian traditions, during the persecution under Diocletian, Cosmas and Damian were arrested by order of the Prefect of Cilicia, one Lysias who is otherwise unknown, who ordered them under torture to recant. However, according to legend they stayed true to their faith, enduring being hung on a cross, stoned and shot by arrows and finally suffered execution by beheading. Anthimus, Leontius and Euprepius, their younger brothers, who were inseparable from them throughout life, shared in their martyrdom.
Their most famous miraculous exploit was the grafting of a leg from a recently deceased Ethiopian to replace a patient’s ulcered leg, and was the subject of many paintings and illuminations.
As early as the 4th century, churches dedicated to the twin saints were established at Jerusalem, in Egypt and in Mesopotamia. Theodoret records the division of their reputed relics. Their relics, deemed miraculous, were buried in the city of Cyrrus in Syria. Churches were built in their honor by Archbishop Proclus and by Emperor Justinian I (527–565), who sumptuously restored the city of Cyrus and dedicated it to the twins, but brought their purported relics to Constantinople; there, following his cure, ascribed to the intercession of Cosmas and Damian, Justinian, in gratitude also built and adorned their church at Constantinople, and it became a celebrated place of pilgrimage. At Rome Pope Felix IV (526–530) rededicated the Library of Peace (Bibliotheca Pacis) as a basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano in the Forum of Vespasian in their honour. The church is much rebuilt but still famed for its sixth-century mosaics illustrating the saints.
What are said to be their skulls are venerated in the convent of the Clares in Madrid, where they have been since 1581, the gift of Maria, daughter of Emperor Charles V. They had previously been removed from Rome to Bremen in the tenth century, and thence to Bamberg. Other skulls said to be theirs were discovered in 1334 by Burchard Grelle, Archbishop of Bremen. He “personally ‘miraculously’ retrieved the relics of the holy physicians Cosmas and Damian, which were allegedly immured and forgotten in the choir of the Bremen Cathedral. In celebration of the retrieval Archbishop and Chapter arranged a feast at Pentecost 1335, when the relics were translated from the wall to a more dignified place. Grelle claimed the relics were those Archbishop Adaldag brought from Rome in 965. The cathedral master-builder Johann Hemeling made a shrine for the relics, which was finished around 1420. The shrine,made from carved oak wood covered with gilt and rolled silver is considered an important mediaeval gold work. In 1649 Bremen’s Chapter, Lutheran by this time, sold the shrine without the heads to Maximilian I of Bavaria. The two heads remained in Bremen and came into the possession of the small Roman Catholic community. They were shown from 1934 to 1968 in the Church of St. Johann and in 1994 they were buried in the crypt. The shrine is now shown in the Jesuit church of St Michael in Munich. At least since 1413 another supposed pair of skulls of the saints has been stored in St Stephens’s Cathedral in Vienna. Other relics are claimed by the Church of San Giorgio Maggiore in Venice.
The martyr twins are invoked in the Canon of the Mass in the prayer known as the Communicantes (from the first Latin word of the prayer): “In communion with the whole Church, they venerate above all others the memory of the glorious ever-virgin Mary, Mother of our God and Lord, Jesus Christ, then of blessed Joseph, husband of the Virgin, your blessed Apostles and Martyrs, Peter and Paul, Andrew, James, John, Thomas, James, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Simon and Jude: Linus, Cletus, Clement, Sixtus, Cornelius, Cyprian, Laurence, Chrysogonus, John and Paul, Cosmas and Damian and all your Saints: grant through their merits and prayers that in all things we may be defended by the help of your protection.” They are also invoked in the Litany of the Saints, and in the older form of the Roman rite, in the Collect for Thursday in the Third Week of Lent, as the station church for this day is Santi Cosma e Damiano.
Their feast day in the Roman Catholic calendar of saints, which had been on September 27, was moved in 1969 to September 26, because September 27 is the dies natalis (“day of birth” into Heaven) of Saint Vincent de Paul, now more widely venerated in the Latin Church, but some traditionalist Catholics continue to observe the pre-1970 calendar.
Sts Cosmas and Damian are regarded as the patrons of physicians and surgeons and are sometimes represented with medical emblems.
In Brazil, the twin saints are regarded as protectors of children, and September 27 is commemorated, especially in Rio de Janeiro, by giving children bags of candy with the saints’ effigy printed on them and throughout the entire state of Bahia where Catholics and adepts of Candomblé religion offer typical food such as carurú. The ritual consists of first offering the food to seven children that are no older than seven years old and then having them feast while sitting on the floor and eating with their hands. Only after all children have finished can the guests enjoy the food that is being offered. The Church of Saints Cosmas and Damian, in Igarassu, Pernambuco is Brazil’s oldest church, built in 1535.
Sts. Cosmas & Damian are venerated every year in Utica, New York at St. Anthony’s Parish during the annual pilgrimage which takes place on the last weekend of September (close to the Sept. 27 feast day). There are thousands of pilgrims who come to honor the saints. Over 80 busloads come from Canada and other destinations. The 2-day festival includes music (La Banda Rosa), much Italian food, masses and processions through the streets of East Utica. It is one of the largest festivals honoring saints in the northeast USA.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (September 2012)|
In the Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Catholic Churches, and the Oriental Orthodox Churches, Saints Cosmas and Damian are venerated as a type of saint known as Unmercenary Physicians (Greek: ἀνάργυροι, anargyroi, “without money”). This classification of saints is unique to the Eastern Church and refers to those who heal purely out of love for God and man, strictly observing the command of Jesus: “Freely have you received, freely give.” («Δωρεὰν ἐλάβετε, δωρεὰν δότε…» Matthew 10:8) While each of the Unmercenaries have their own feast days, all are commemorated together on the first Sunday in November, in a feast known as the Synaxis of the Unmercenary Physicians.
The Orthodox celebrate no less than three different sets of saints by the name of Cosmas and Damian, each with their own distinct feast day:
- Saints Cosmas and Damian of Cilicia (Arabia) (October 17) Brothers, according to Christian legend they were beaten and beheaded together with three other Christians: Leontius, Anthimus, and Eutropius.
- Saints Cosmas and Damian of Asia Minor — alternately, of Mesopotamia (November 1) Twin sons of Saint Theodota. Died peacefully and were buried together at Thereman in Mesopotamia.
- Saints Cosmas and Damian of Rome (July 1) Brothers, according to Christian tradition they were martyred outside Rome by a jealous pagan physician during the reign of the Roman Emperor Carinus (283–284).
Orthodox icons of the saints depict them vested as laymen holding medicine boxes. Often each will also hold a spoon with which to dispense medicine. The handle of the spoon is normally shaped like a cross to indicate the importance of spiritual as well as physical healing, and that all cures come from God.
In Rochester, Minnesota, home of the Mayo Clinic, the Greek Orthodox Church is the Holy Anargyroi/Sts. Kosmas & Damianos Greek Orthodox Church.
Church of England
In the Church of England, dedications of churches to SS Cosmas and Damian are very rare:
- Blean, Kent, church of St Cosmus [sic] and St Damian in the Blean;
- Challock, Kent;
- Keymer, Sussex, St Cosmas and St Damian Church, Keymer;
- Sherrington, Wiltshire, church of St Cosmo [sic] and St Damian, in the Benefice of the Upper Wylye Valley;
- Stretford, near Leominster, Herefordshire, church no longer in use and in the care of the Churches Conservation Trust.
- Great Synaxaristes: (Greek) Οἱ Ἅγιοι Κοσμᾶς καὶ Δαμιανός οἱ Ἀνάργυροι καὶ Θαυματουργοί. 1 Νοεμβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
- Wonderworker and Unmercenary Cosmas of Asia Minor. OCA – Feasts and Saints.
- Catholic Encyclopedia: “Sts. Cosmas and Damian”
- Cf. “Bremer Chronik von Gerhard Rinesberch und Herbord Schene”, In: Bremen, Hermann Meinert (ed.) on behalf of the Historische Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Bremen: Schünemann, 1968, (Chroniken der deutschen Städte vom 14. bis ins 16. Jahrhundert; vol. 37: Die Chroniken der niedersächsischen Städte), p. 112,; Regesten der Erzbischöfe von Bremen, Joseph König and Otto Heinrich May (compilators), Hanover: Selbstverlag der Historischen Kommission, 1971, (Veröffentlichungen der Historischen Kommission für Hannover, Oldenburg, Braunschweig, Schaumburg-Lippe und Bremen; vol. 11,2,2), vol. 2, Lfg. 2: 1327–1344, No. 508; Joseph König, “Zur Biographie des Burchard Grelle, Erzbischof von Bremen und der Geschichte seines Pontifikats (1327–1344)”, In: Stader Jahrbuch; vol. 76 (1986), p. 42; Herbert Schwarzwälder, Geschichte der Freien Hansestadt Bremen:5 vols., ext. and impr. ed., Bremen: Ed. Temmen, 1995, vol. 1: Von den Anfängen bis zur Franzosenzeit: (1810), p. 70; Alfred Löhr, “Kult und Herrschaft, Erzstift und Domkapitel”, In: Der Bremer Dom. Baugeschichte, Ausgrabungen, Kunstschätze. Handbuch u. Katalog zur Sonderausstellung vom 17.6. bis 30.9.1979 im Bremer Landesmuseum – Focke-Museum –, Karl Heinz Brandt (ed.), Bremen: Bremer Landesmuseum, 1979, (Focke-Museum, Bremen. Hefte; No. 49, vielm.: 52), pp. 102seq. and 128 as well as Catalogue No. 31, Urkunden und Siegel des Erzbischofs Burchard Grelle; Bodo Heyne, “Die Arztheiligen Kosmas und Damian und der Bremer Dom”, In: Hospitium Ecclesiae: Forschungen zur Bremischen Kirchengeschichte; vol. 9 (1975), pp. 7–21; Johannes Focke, “Die Heiligen Cosmas und Damian und ihr Reliquienschrein im Dom zu Bremen”, In: Bremisches Jahrbuch, Bd. 17 (1895), pp. 128–161.
- “Ostern 1334 hatte Burchard persönlich im Chor des Bremer Doms die … dort angeblich eingemauerten und vergessenen Reliquien der heiligen Ärzte Cosmas und Damian auf ‘wunderbare Weise’ wiederaufgefunden. Erzbischof und Kapitel veranstalteten aus diesem Anlaß zu Pfingsten 1335 ein Fest, bei dem die Reliquien aus der Mauer an einen würdigeren Platz überführt wurden.” Konrad Elmshäuser, “Der werdende Territorialstaat der Erzbischöfe von Bremen (1236–1511): I. Die Erzbischöfe als Landesherren”, In: Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser: 3 parts, Hans-Eckhard Dannenberg and Heinz-Joachim Schulze (eds.) on behalf of the Landschaftsverband der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, 1995 and 2008, (Schriftenreihe des Landschaftsverbandes der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden; No. 7), part II: Mittelalter (1995), pp. 159–189, here p. 177. Original emphasis. Omission not in the original. ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2
- Konrad Elmshäuser, “Der werdende Territorialstaat der Erzbischöfe von Bremen (1236–1511): I. Die Erzbischöfe als Landesherren”, In: Geschichte des Landes zwischen Elbe und Weser: 3 parts, Hans-Eckhard Dannenberg and Heinz-Joachim Schulze (eds.) on behalf of the Landschaftsverband der ehemaligen Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, Stade: Landschaftsverband der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden, 1995 and 2008, (Schriftenreihe des Landschaftsverbandes der ehem. Herzogtümer Bremen und Verden; No. 7), Part II: Mittelalter (1995), pp. 159–189, here p. 178. ISBN 978-3-9801919-8-2
- (Wilhelm Tacke: St. Johann in Bremen – erine 600jährige Geschichte – von den Bettelbrüdern bis zu den Pröpsten, Bremen 2006, S. 172ff.)
- “Calendarium Romanum” (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 140
- Acta sanctorum, 27 Sept, p 432 para 187
This is an incomplete version of our beginner’s guide. We will be editing this tutorial to make it as easy and understandable for everyone who uses our web hosting control panel for the first time. We will also add some screenshots later.
Once you have signed up for a web hosting account and you have received the welcome email with the login details, you most likely want to get started and get your site online as soon as possible. This guide will guide you through the steps of setting up your account and getting your website online. You will also learn how to setup email accounts, MySQL databases etc. But first things first, let’s start with setting up your domain name and uploading the files.
* Domain name setup *
– If you have registered our domain with us when you signed up for the account, all the work is done by us, so you just need to wait for your domain to become fully operational (usually 12-24 hours).
– If you have registered the domain from the Domain Registration section of your web hosting control panel you also need to add it to the Hosted Domains section before it becomes fully operational.
– In the case when you have registered the domain elsewhere, you need to add it to the Hosted Domains and set our name servers to it. The name servers are listed in the Hosted Domains section. The company which you have registered the domain with should have provided you with a control panel where you can edit the name servers (DNS) of your domain. Set our name servers to the domain and allow 12-24 hours for the change to take effect.
– If you have requested a domain transfer, make sure that the domain has been added to the Hosted Domains and set our name servers to it. Setting our name servers to your domain will make the domain point to your account (within 12-24 hours). The transfer procedure however takes more time – usually 5-7 business days. Transferring a domain means that you are changing the registrar company – the one which manages your domain. While the domain is transferring you can still use it as long as you have set our name servers (DNS) to it.
Now that you have the domain setup, you can start with uploading your files (publishing your website).
* Uploading your files / publishing your site *
We have an online File Manager integrated in the web hosting control panel which can be used for file manipulation and upload. Open the File Manager – you will see 5 folders:
These are the system folders of your account. The one that you will be accessing is the www folder. In the www folder are located the main folders of each of your subdomains/domains. When you add a domain to your Hosted Domains or you add a subdomain from the Subdomain Manager, a folder is created in the www/ directory. The folder has the same name as your domain/subdomain. So if you have added the domain your-domain.com to your Hosted Domains, then you should see a folder named your-domain.com in the www/ directory. Of course you can edit the folder where a subdomain/domain points to, but by default it points to the folder which has the same name and is located in the www/ directory. We will explain later how you can edit the default path of a subdomain/domain.
Now that you know where your subdomain/domain points to you should have some idea where you should upload your files. In the example with your-domain.com, you should upload your files to the folder named your-domain.com. But how do you do this? There are several ways to upload/publish your website:
– FrontPage – if you have created your website with FrontPage, this is how you publish your website:
* From your web hosting control panel you should first activate the FrontPage Extensions (FPEs) for the domain/subdomain which you will be publishing your website to. Go to the FrontPage Extensions section of your web hosting control panel and activate the extensions by selecting the domain/subdomain that you want to activate them for.
* Now that you have the FPEs activated, you can publish your website:
1. Launch FrontPage Explorer and open the web site you have created on your computer.
2. From the menu at the top select “File” > “Publish”
3. Enter the location, where you want to publish your FrontPage web site. (http://www.your-domain.com – if you are using a free subdomain type it without www in front). Then hit the Enter key on your keyboard.
IMPORTANT: Use “http://www.your-domain.com” (if you are using a free subdomain type it without www in-front) as the Destination Web Server to publish to our server. Leave the ‘Destination Web Name’ blank.
4. Use the following username and password:
Username: your account username
Password: your FTP password
You should use the username/password of your default FTP account. You can see the username in the FTP Manager section of your web hosting control panel – there you can also set the FTP password.
– File Manager – the File Manager integrated in your web hosting control panel can also be used for uploading files. Browse the directory where you want to upload the files to – in our example, go to www/your-domain.com. Then at the bottom you see 5 fields with the button “Choose” next to them. You can upload even more than 5 files at a time by clicking on the “More Files” button – it will add a new field every time you click it. Choose the files that you want to upload by clicking on the “Choose” button and selecting the files from your computer and then click “Upload File(s)” to initiate the upload (leave the “Upload permissions” set to 755). Once the files have been uploaded you will see them in the folder of your domain/subdomain.
Now when you open your website from the web (http://www.your-domain.com) your website will open. Please keep in mind that the file that loads by default is the one named index.html (or index.htm or index.php). If you don’t have an index file, a directory index page (Index of/) will open when you go to the address of your website (http://www.your-domain.com).
– FTP – you can use FTP client software like FileZilla, CuteFTP, SmartFTP, WS_FTP etc. to upload your files. Such FTP clients are actually something like remote file managers. In order to connect to the server, they need the FTP connection settings. These are the same settings that you can see/edit in the FTP Manager. For FTP host use your-domain.com (or any of your working subdomains/domains) and for the username and the password use the ones in from the FTP Manager section of your web hosting control panel. For concrete instructions about using the FTP client that you have downloaded, please refer to the Help of the respective software.
Using one of the methods described above, you should have been able to publish your website. Now at http://www.your-domain.com you should see your home page.
If you are using a PHP/Perl system that requires MySQL database, then you have some additional work to do. First you need to create a database, then you need to connect your PHP/Perl driven website to the database.
* Creating a MySQL Database *
You can add a database to your account from the Manage SQL Databases section of the web hosting control panel. This is also where you can see the existing databases and edit the password of a database. The database names look something like:
Where username is the username of your web hosting account. When you create a database you can only choose the second part of the name (db1, db2, joomla, mambo). Keep in mind that the whole name (including username_) must not be longer than 16 characters.
Once you have created a database you can setup your scripts to connect to it using the following settings:
database name: username_db1 (the whole name of the database – the one that you see in the Manage SQL Databases section of your web hosting control panel)
database username: username_db1 (the same as above)
database password: password (the password that you have set to your database – you can edit it from the Manage SQL Databases section)
database host: server.com (server.com is an example, you can see the correct server name / database hostname in the Manage SQL Databases section, just under the table with the list of your database(s))
database port: 3306
Usually the script that you are installing requires all of the above settings, in some cases, the MySQL port is not required though.
Using the correct MySQL settings, your script should be able to connect to the database. You may however need to do some manual changes to the tables of a database and the tool, which you can use for, that purpose is the phpMyAdmin – it is integrated in your web hosting control panel. You should login using the database name (the whole name) as username and the database password as password.
The phpMyAdmin can be used for importing and exporting a database (i.e. for loading a backup or creating a backup of your database).
* Importing a database (loading a backup from a database dump file) *
In the phpMyAdmin there are 5 icons on the left navigation menu, the middle one says SQL, click on it and a new window opens where you see “Import file” in the top navigation links. There you can import the file that you have exported.
[/b]* Exporting a database (creating a backup) *[/b]
You can backup your database from the phpMyAdmin section of your web hosting control panel. Login to phpMyAdmin. Click on your database (on the left you see the name of the database and all tables under the database, click on the name of your database), then click on “Export” from the top navigation menu. Check the “Save as file” check-box and click on the “Go” button in the bottom right corner.
Now that you have your domain working, your files have been uploaded and you have setup a database and your scripts are able to connect to it, we can say that your site has been setup. This is however only part of what you have to do. In the following sections of this tutorial you will learn how to add/edit subdomains; create email accounts; check the statistics of your web hosting account and websites; use the Password Protected Areas tools and more…
You can add, delete and edit the settings of a subdomain from the Subdomain Manager. You will note that in the Subdomain Manager there is a www subdomain for each of your domain (www.your-domain.com for example). The www subdomain is the default subdomain of a top level domain – it cannot be deleted unless you delete the domain from the Hosted Domains. Using the form in the subdomain manager you can add new subdomains. This is what each of the subdomain fields mean:
– IP: the IP of the subdomain – by default this is the shared IP of the server – it is shared for all web hosting accounts on the server. You can also have a dedicated IP (we will explain how you can acquire one later) – if you have a dedicated IP you can select it from the drop-down menu and make your subdomain resolve at this dedicated IP. This way the site hosted in the folder of your subdomain will not only be accessible at http://subdomain.your-domain.com but also at http://123.45.678.9 (where 123.45.678.9 is your dedicated IP).
– Path: the path of the subdomain defines to which folder the subdomain points to. As we explained earlier, by default the subdomain subdomain.your-domain.com points to the folder subdomain.your-domain.com, so the default path is /www/subdomain.your-domain.com/
You can however edit the path and make the subdomain point to /www/subdomain2.your-domain.com/ – this way http://subdomain.your-domain.com will open the content of the folder subdomain2.your-domain.com. This way you can have the same content at more than one addresses (subdomains/domains) – this could be useful if you have the domains your-domain.com and your-domain.net and want them to open the same content.
– Error 404 page: you can set your won custom 404 error page, so when someone follows a wrong link on your site, he will be brought to your custom error page instead of the default error page of the server.
– Activate FPE: FrontPage extensions could be activated when creating/editing a subdomain, this is what this option does.
– Activate access & error logs: selecting this option would activate the access & error logs for the subdomain. The access logs and the error logs are text files with logs, which you can download from the Access & Error Logs section of your web hosting control panel. We will explain the use of the Access & Error Logs later in this tutorial.
– Secure Socket Layer (SSL): you can also activate SSL when adding/deleting a subdomain. SSL is used for securing a site where the visitor is asked for personal details or billing information for example. We will explain the use of SSL in details later.
When creating a subdomain you can choose the domain at which the subdomain will be created from a drop-down menu. If you choose your-domain.com for example and type “forum” in the subdomain field, a subdomain forum.your.domain.com will be created. In the domain drop-down menu are listed all domains that you have added to your Hosted Domains plus the server domains – these are domains added to the server for public use. Usually people use them for testing, but you can also host a working website on such subdomain.
In the table where all subdomains are listed there are several columns:
# Subdomain IP FileManager FPE SSL Traffic Edit Delete
here is what each of them represents:
– # – the number of the subdomain in the list
– Subdomain – the name of the subdomain, clicking on it will open the website hosted on this subdomain
– IP – the IP of the subdomain
– FileManager – clicking on the folder icon opens the folder where the subdomain points via the File Manager
– FPE – shows whether FrontPage Extensions have been enabled for this subdomain or not
– SSL – shows whether SSL has been activated for this subdomain or not
– Traffic – opens the traffic statistics for this subdomain
– Edit – opens the page where you can edit the settings of the subdomain
– Delete – deletes the subdomain
Above the table where the subdomains are listed, there is a search form where you can search a subdomain by IP or the name of the subdomain. You can use this form if you have many subdomains and have problems finding any of them in the list.
*** Important: The way our system works, does not allow accessing a subdomain from the web with a www in front of the name of the subdomain – this means that www.subdomain.your-domain.com would not work. You can only access a top level domain with a www in front (www.your-domain.com).
* Creating and using an email account *
To create a working e-mail account you need to have a domain. Having a working domain in your hosting account, you will be able to create e-mail accounts by submitting the form in the E-Mail Manager menu of your Control Panel. Here is what each of the fields means/does:
– Catchall email: selecting this option will create a catchall account. A catchall accounts is an account which receives all emails sent to non-existing email address at a concrete domain. For example the catchall account firstname.lastname@example.org will receive all emails sent to email addresses like email@example.com if there is no actual firstname.lastname@example.org created in your account. This could mean that the catchall account will receive a lot of spam, but also you won’t miss a message because a client spelled wrong your sales email and sent the message to the non-existing email@example.com instead to firstname.lastname@example.org which is the correct address. IMPORTANT: catchall accounts cannot send emails, the are strictly for incoming mail. Also, catchall accounts cannot have an auto-responder and cannot be forwarded.
– Password: sets the password for the email account
– Retype Password: sets the password for the email account
– Use Autoresponder: sets an autoresponder, so that someone sends an email to this email address, he will receive an automated reply
How do you use the email account that you have just created?
– You can use the email account with the Webmail – this is an online email client – similar to yahoo’s and hotmail’s webmails but more simple. You can login to the webmail using the name of your mailbox as username and the corresponding password as password. So if you have created an email account email@example.com, the username which you should use in the webmail would be firstname.lastname@example.org
– You can also use your email account with any standalone email client – like Outlook or Mozilla Thunderbird. In this case there are several settings that you need to know:
IMAP/POP3, SMTP username: email@example.com
IMAP/POP3, SMTP password: corresponding password for the above account
IMAP/POP3, SMTP server: mail.server.com (mail.server.com is just an example – you can see the mail server in the Email Manager, just under the table where your email accounts are listed)
Secure Authentication: ON – you should set your email client to use secure authentication. Here is how you can do this in some of the most popular mail clients:
* Outlook Express: enable the check-box “My server requires authentication”
* Eudora: enable the check-box “Authentication allowed”
* Mozilla Thunderbird: enable the option “Use name and password”
* Mail for Mac OS X: enable the check-box “Use authentication when sending mail”, also set Authentication to “MD5 Challenge-Response”
* Forwarding email accounts *
You can forward an email account to any valid email address. So if you only use the email account firstname.lastname@example.org and want the emails sent to email@example.com to be forwarded to firstname.lastname@example.org you can do this from the Email Manager. In the email accounts table there is an icon in the Forward column, when you click on it, you can add a forward for the email account.
* Email aliases – what they are and how we use them *
An email alias is actually an alternative name for a mailbox. For example if we have the mailbox email@example.com, it has the default alias firstname.lastname@example.org and we can add more aliases. If we add the alias email@example.com all emails sent to firstname.lastname@example.org will be received by the email account email@example.com. How is this different from email forwarding? For instance, aliases cannot be used for sending emails. So you cannot send emails from firstname.lastname@example.org which is an alias of email@example.com. Also you cannot login to the webmail or setup your outlook using firstname.lastname@example.org, because it is not really a mailbox, the mailbox is email@example.com. So why using aliases instead of forwarding? Well, actually in most cases forwarding is better, there are some rare cases when you would like to use an alias, for example if you have an email account firstname.lastname@example.org and people often get it wrong and send emails to email@example.com – you can create an alias firstname.lastname@example.org so that you don’t lose emails from people who can’t spell
* The email accounts table *
Let’s see what each of the columns means/represents:
# Mail Forward Delete Alias Mailbox Aliases Outlook Options Delete Mailbox
– # – the number of the email account in the table
– Mail – a list of the email Aliases for this email account
– Forward – indicates whether the alias has a forwarding set to it; you can click on the icon to add forwarding
– Delete – deletes the alias
– Aliases – clicking on the icon allows you to add an alias to this mailbox
– Outlook – clicking on the icon downloads a file which automatically configures Outlook for this mailbox
– Options – clicking on the left icon allows you to change the password, clicking on the right icon allows you to set an autoresponder
– Delete Mailbox – deletes the mailbox (incl. all aliases!)
* Sending mails using a script *
There is one very important requirement on our servers – when sending emails using a script, either the TO: or FROM: header must be set to an email account hosted in your web hosting account. This restriction is necessary to prevent spam. So if you have a contact form, the FROM: address will be most likely the email address of the person who is contacting you – this means that the TO: address must be set to your email, hosted in your web hosting account. IN the case when it is a “Tell a friend” form for example, the TO: address would be the email of the “friend”, so you must set the FROM: address to your email address.
As we mentioned before, there are several ways to send emails using a script:
– SMTP – some PHP/Perl systems allow you to use the SMTP for sending emails – the script connects to the SMTP server the same way a mail client does and sends the emails. In this case you need to use a concrete email account for sending emails. Let’s say you want to use the email account email@example.com
The settings that you need to set in your scripts are actually the same that you use in your mail client (Outlook for example):
SMTP server: the mail server listed in the Email Manager (for example mail.server.com)
password: the corresponding password for firstname.lastname@example.org
Use secure authentication: YES
Keep in mind that is you use the email account email@example.com the script must be hosted in the same web hosting account – you want be able to send emails using this email account with a script hosted elsewhere.
– phpmail() – the phpmail() or mail() function is a PHP function used for sending emails. In this case you don’t need to provide the password or the mail server, but only the email account, which you want to send the email FROM or TO. Again, the script must be hosted in the same web hosting account as the email account.
– sendmail – sendmail is a Perl module, in order to use it, you need to set the path to sendmail in your script and the email that you want the emails to be send FROM or TO. The sendmail path is: /usr/sbin/sendmail
We offer several kinds of statistics with every web hosting plan. There is an Account Usage table on the left of your web hosting control panel where you see the global stats for your account, like disk space, traffic, etc. The In Use column shows the number/amount used and the Available shows the available/not used number/amount. There are also detailed statistics about the traffic used by each subdomain in the Bandwidth Stats section. We also have even more detailed statistic – the Traffic Stats – there you can see the amount of visitors, hits, etc. for each of your websites.
Password Protected Areas (PPA)
If you want to protect a concrete folder with a password, so that when someone opens the folder it asks for username and password, you can do this using the Password Protected Areas tool.
You can add a password-protected area by using the form in the PPA section. You can select the folder, which you want to protect by clicking on the “…” button – a File Manager window will open and you will be able to browse to the folder and select it.
Remember that the password protection will not work if there is an .htaccess file in the folder, which you are trying to protect.
The problem: Freehostia Free Accounts block outside connections. This means that Akismet can’t access it’s servers and you can’t have spam checking. So, all of your comments are spam spam spam!
I tried to add a captcha, but they got around that. I tried to add Disqus using the plugin, but that failed to install because of the account’s limitations.
But, I was able to add moderated comments to my freehostia site by manually installing Disqus. This is very necessary because otherwise you get hit with a bunch of spammers.
Here is how you manually install Disqus on WordPress.
- Create New Disqus Account
- Go to your dashboard
- Click on your site
- Go to Settings
- And then click Install
- Select Universal Code
- Copy that code
- In /wp-content/themes/THEMENAME/single.php Replace:
<?php comments_template( '', true ); ?>
- Save, Upload, then go to one of your posts. You should see Disqus loading at the bottom.
- Remember to setup your Disqus the way you want it. It’s a little restrictive out of the box. You can even add Akismet to Disqus in their admin interface.
IP subnetting is a fundamental subject that’s critical for any IP network engineer to understand, yet students have traditionally had a difficult time grasping it.
Over the years, I’ve watched students needlessly struggle through school and in practice when dealing with subnetting because it was never explained to them in an easy-to-understand way.
I’ve helped countless individuals learn what subnetting is all about using my own graphical approach and calculator shortcuts, and I’ve put all that experience into this article.
IP addresses and subnets
Although IP stands for Internet Protocol, it’s a communications protocol used from the smallest private network to the massive global Internet. An IP address is a unique identifier given to a single device on an IP network. The IP address consists of a 32-bit number that ranges from 0 to 4294967295. This means that theoretically, the Internet can contain approximately 4.3 billion unique objects. But to make such a large address block easier to handle, it was chopped up into four 8-bit numbers, or “octets,” separated by a period. Instead of 32 binary base-2 digits, which would be too long to read, it’s converted to four base-256 digits. Octets are made up of numbers ranging from 0 to 255. The numbers below show how IP addresses increment.
…increment 252 hosts…
…increment 252 hosts…
…increment 4+ billion hosts…
The word subnet is short for sub network–a smaller network within a larger one. The smallest subnet that has no more subdivisions within it is considered a single “broadcast domain,” which directly correlates to a single LAN (local area network) segment on an Ethernet switch. The broadcast domain serves an important function because this is where devices on a network communicate directly with each other’s MAC addresses, which don’t route across multiple subnets, let alone the entire Internet. MAC address communications are limited to a smaller network because they rely on ARP broadcasting to find their way around, and broadcasting can be scaled only so much before the amount of broadcast traffic brings down the entire network with sheer broadcast noise. For this reason, the most common smallest subnet is 8 bits, or precisely a single octet, although it can be smaller or slightly larger.
Subnets have a beginning and an ending, and the beginning number is always even and the ending number is always odd. The beginning number is the “Network ID” and the ending number is the “Broadcast ID.” You’re not allowed to use these numbers because they both have special meaning with special purposes. The Network ID is the official designation for a particular subnet, and the ending number is the broadcast address that every device on a subnet listens to. Anytime you want to refer to a subnet, you point to its Network ID and its subnet mask, which defines its size. Anytime you want to send data to everyone on the subnet (such as a multicast), you send it to the Broadcast ID. Later in this article, I’ll show you an easy mathematical and graphical way to determine the Network and Broadcast IDs.
The graphical subnet ruler
Over the years, as I watched people struggle with the subject of IP subnetting, I wanted a better way to teach the subject. I soon realized that many students in IT lacked the necessary background in mathematics and had a hard time with the concept of binary numbers. To help close this gap, I came up with the graphical method of illustrating subnets shown in Figure A. In this example, we’re looking at a range of IP addresses from 10.0.0.0 up to 10.0.32.0. Note that the ending IP of 10.0.32.0 itself is actually the beginning of the next subnet. This network range ends at the number right before it, which is 10.0.31.255.
Note that for every bit increase, the size of the subnet doubles in length, along with the number of hosts. The smallest tick mark represents 8 bits, which contains a subnet with 256 hosts–but since you can’t use the first and last IP addresses, there are actually only 254 usable hosts on the network. The easiest way to compute how many usable hosts are in a subnet is to raise 2 to the power of the bit size minus 2. Go up to 9 bits ,and we’re up to 510 usable hosts, because 2 to the 9th is 512, and we don’t count the beginning and ending. Keep on going all the way up to 13 bits, and we’re up to 8,190 usable hosts for the entire ruler shown above.
Learning to properly chop subnets
Subnets can be subdivided into smaller subnets and even smaller ones still. The most important thing to know about chopping up a network is that you can’t arbitrarily pick the beginning and ending. The chopping must be along clean binary divisions. The best way to learn this is to look at my subnet ruler and see what’s a valid subnet. In Figure B, green subnets are valid and red subnets are not.
The ruler was constructed like any other ruler, where we mark it down the middle and bisect it. Then, we bisect the remaining sections and with shrinking markers every time we start a new round of bisecting. In the sample above, there were five rounds of bisections. If you look carefully at the edge of any valid (green) subnet blocks, you’ll notice that none of the markers contained within the subnet is higher than the edge’s markers. There is a mathematical reason for this, which we’ll illustrate later, but seeing it graphically will make the math easier to understand.
The role of the subnet mask
The subnet mask plays a crucial role in defining the size of a subnet. Take a look at Figure C. Notice the pattern and pay special attention to the numbers in red. Whenever you’re dealing with subnets, it will come in handy to remember eight special numbers that reoccur when dealing with subnet masks. They are 255, 254, 252, 248, 240, 224, 192, and 128. You’ll see these numbers over and over again in IP networking, and memorizing them will make your life much easier.
I’ve included three class sizes. You’ll see the first two classes, with host bit length from 0 to 16, most often. It’s common for DSL and T1 IP blocks to be in the 0- to 8-bit range. Private networks typically work in the 8- to 24-bit range.
Note how the binary mask has all those zeros growing from right to left. The subnet mask in binary form always has all ones to the left and all zeros to the right. The number of zeros is identical to the subnet length. I showed only the portion of the binary subnet in the octet that’s interesting, since all octets to the right consist of zeros and all octets to the left consist of ones. So if we look at the subnet mask where the subnet length is 11 bits long, the full binary subnet mask is 11111111.11111111.11111000.00000000. As you can see under mask octet, the subnet mask transitions from 1 to 0 in the third octet. The particular binary subnet mask translates directly to base-256 form as 255.255.248.0.
The “mask” in subnet mask
The subnet mask not only determines the size of a subnet, but it can also help you pinpoint where the end points on the subnet are if you’re given any IP address within that subnet. The reason it’s called a subnet “mask” is that it literally masks out the host bits and leaves only the Network ID that begins the subnet. Once you know the beginning of the subnet and how big it is, you can determine the end of the subnet, which is the Broadcast ID.
To calculate the Network ID, you simply take any IP address within that subnet and run the AND operator on the subnet mask. Let’s take an IP address of 10.20.237.15 and a subnet mask of 255.255.248.0. Note that this can be and often is written in shorthand as 10.20.237.15/21because the subnet mask length is 21. Figure D and Figure E show the Decimal and Binary versions of the AND operation.
The binary version shows how the 0s act as a mask on the IP address on top. Inside the masking box, the 0s convert all numbers on top into zeros, no matter what the number is. When you take the resultant binary Network ID and convert it to decimal, you get 10.20.232.0 as the Network ID.
One thing that’s always bothered me about the way subnetting is taught is that students are not shown a simple trick to bypass the need for binary conversions when doing AND operations. I even see IT people in the field using this slow and cumbersome technique to convert everything to binary, run the AND operation, and then convert back to decimal using the Windows Calculator. But there’s a really simple shortcut using the Windows Calculator, since the AND operator works directly on decimal numbers. Simply punch in 237, hit the AND operator, and then 248 and [Enter] to instantly get 232, as shown in Figure F. I’ll never understand why this isn’t explained to students, because it makes mask calculations a lot easier.
Since there are 11 zeros in the subnet mask, the subnet is 11 bits long. This means there are 2^11, or 2,048, maximum hosts in the subnet and the last IP in this subnet is 10.20.239.255. You could compute this quickly by seeing there are three zeros in the third octet, which means the third octet of the IP address can have a variance of 2^3, or 8. So the next subnet starts at 10.20.232+8.0, which is 10.20.240.0. If we decrease that by 1, we have 10.20.239.255, which is where this subnet ends. To help you visualize this, Figure G shows it on my subnet ruler.
IP classes made simple
For an arbitrary classification of IP subnets, the creators of the Internet chose to break the Internet into multiple classes. Note that these aren’t important as far as your subnet calculations are concerned; this is just how the Internet is “laid out.” The Internet is laid out as Class A, B, C, D, and E. Class A uses up the first half of the entire Internet, Class B uses half of the remaining half, Class C uses the remaining half again, Class D (Multicasting) uses up the remaining half again, and whatever is left over is reserved for Class E. I’ve had students tell me that they struggled with the memorization of IP classes for weeks until they saw this simple table shown in Figure H. This is because you don’t actually need to memorize anything, you just learn the technique for constructing the ruler using half of what’s available.
Remember that all subnets start with EVEN numbers and all subnet endings are ODD. Note that 0.0.0.0/8 (0.0.0.0 to 0.255.255.255) isn’t used and 127.0.0.0/8 (127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255) is reserved for loopback addresses.
All Class A addresses have their first octet between 1 to 126 because 0 and 127 are reserved. Class A subnets are all 24 bits long, which means the subnet mask is only 8 bits long. For example, we have the entire 22.214.171.124/8 subnet owned by GE, since GE was lucky enough to get in early to be assigned 16.8 million addresses. The U.S. Army owns 126.96.36.199/8. Level 3 Communications owns 188.8.131.52/8. IBM owns 184.108.40.206/8. AT&T owns 220.127.116.11/8. Xerox owns 18.104.22.168/8. HP owns 22.214.171.124/8 and 126.96.36.199/8. Apple owns 188.8.131.52/8.
All Class B addresses have their first octet between 128 and 191. Class B subnets are all 16 bits long, which means the subnet masks are 16 bits long. For example, BBN Communications owns 184.108.40.206/16, which is 220.127.116.11 to 18.104.22.168. Carnegie Mellon University owns 22.214.171.124/16.
All Class C addresses have their first octet between 192 and 223. Class C subnets are all 8 bits long, so the subnet mask is only 24 bits long. Note that ARIN (the organization that assigns Internet addresses) will sell blocks of four Class C addresses only to individual companies and you have to really justify why you need 1,024 Public IP addresses. If you need to run BGP so you can use multiple ISPs for redundancy, you have to have your own block of IP addresses. Also note that this isn’t the old days, where blocks of 16.8 million Class A addresses were handed out for basically nothing. You have to pay an annual fee for your block of 1,024 addresses with a subnet mask of /22, or 255.255.252.0.
The concept of subnet classes can cause harm in actual practice. I’ve actually seen people forget to turn classes off in their old Cisco router and watch large subnet routes get hijacked on a large WAN configured for dynamic routing whenever some routes were added. This is because a Cisco router will assume the subnet mask is the full /8 or /16 or /24 even if you define something in between. All newer Cisco IOS software versions turn off the concept of subnet classes and uses classless routing by default. This is done with the default command “IP Classless.”
Public versus private IP addresses
Besides the reserved IP addresses (0.0.0.0/8 and 127.0.0.0/8) mentioned above, there are other addresses not used on the public Internet. These private subnets consist of private IP addresses and are usually behind a firewall or router that performs NAT (network address translation). NAT is needed because private IP addresses are nonroutable on the public Internet, so they must be translated into public IP addresses before they touch the Internet. Private IPs are never routed because no one really owns them. And since anyone can use them, there’s no right place to point a private IP address to on the public Internet. Private IP addresses are used in most LAN and WAN environments, unless you’re lucky enough to own a Class A or at least a Class B block of addresses, in which case you might have enough IPs to assign internal and external IP addresses.
The following blocks of IP addresses are allocated for private networks:
- 10.0.0.0/8 (10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255)
- 172.16.0.0/12 (172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255)
- 192.168.0.0/16 (192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255)
- 169.254.0.0/16 (169.254.0.0 to 169.254.255.255)*
*Note that 169.254.0.0/16 is a block of private IP addresses used for random self IP assignment where DHCP servers are not available.
10.0.0.0/8 is normally used for larger networks, since there are approximately 16.8 million IP addresses available within that block. They chop it up into lots of smaller groups of subnets for each geographic location, which are then subdivided into even smaller subnets. Smaller companies typically use the 172.16.0.0/12 range, chopped up into smaller subnets, although there’s no reason they can’t use 10.0.0.0/8 if they want to. Home networks typically use a /24 subnet within the 192.168.0.0/16 subnet.
The use of private IP addresses and NAT has prolonged the life of IPv4 for the foreseeable future because it effectively allows a single public IP address to represent thousands of private IP addresses. At the current rate that IPv4 addresses are handed out, we have enough IPv4 addresses for approximately 17 years. ARIN is much more stingy now about handing them out, and small blocks of IP addresses are relatively expensive compared to the old days, when companies like Apple were simply handed a block of 16.8 million addresses. The next version of IP addresses, called IPv6, is 128 bits long–and there are more than 79 thousand trillion trillion times more IP addresses than IPv4. Even if you assigned 4.3 billion people on the planet with 4.3 billion IP addresses each, you would still have more than 18 million trillion IPv6 addresses left!
Rom Install Instructions::
“Very Important Make A Nandroid ALWAYS”
– Make sure your using latest SmelkusMod Recovery Recomended
– Put ROM & Gapps on SD Card
– Reboot into Recovery
– Wipe Factory Data Reset
– Wipe Superwipe
– Wipe Format All
– Wipe Caches
– Install ROM
– Install Gapps
Cricket Mms Instructions::
– Turn On Bluetooth
– Open App Voice Dialer
– Say “Open Apn’s”
– Click Cricket Apn
– Click Username
– Enter Cell# Were Is Says MDN “firstname.lastname@example.org”
– Click Menu Button and Save
– Click the bubble on right side of Cricket To Enable APN FOR Mms
– Disable Bluetooth
– Restart Phone and Send & Receive Mms
– Open Terminal Emulator (app in the app drawer)
– Type “su” without the quotes
– Allow Terminal Emulator super user access
– Type “a2sd install” without the quotes
– Type ‘y’ for cache without the quotes
– Type ‘n’ for data without the quotes
– Type ‘y’ for reboot without the quotes
Added Replacement Cricket (4.2) MMS.apk
Modified eri.xml To Have Cricket Carrier label
Modified apns-conf.xml W/ Cricket’s Apn